What are the benefits of Bioethanol?    
1ˇ˘Bioethanol has a number of advantages over conventional fuels. It comes from a renewable resource i.e. crops and not from
a finite resource and the crops it derives from can grow well (like cereals, sugar beet and maize).
  2ˇ˘Another benefit over fossilfuels is the greenhouse gas emissions. The road transport network accounts for 22% of all greenhouse gas emissions and
through the use of bioethanol, some of these emissions will be reduced as the fuel crops absorb the CO2 they emit through
growing. Also, blending bioethanol with petrol will help extend the life of the diminishing oil supplies and ensure greater fuel
security, avoiding heavy reliance on oil producing nations. By encouraging bioethanol use, the rural economy would also
receive a boost from growing the necessary crops. Bioethanol is also biodegradable and far less toxic that fossil fuels.

Bioethanol Production

  Ethanol can be produced from biomass by the hydrolysis and sugar fermentation processes. Biomass wastes contain a complex mixture of carbohydrate polymers from the plant cell walls known as cellulose, hemi cellulose and lignin. In order to produce sugars from the biomass, the biomass is pre-treated with acids or enzymes in order to reduce the size of the feedstock and to open up the plant structure. The cellulose and the hemi cellulose portions are broken down (hydrolysed) by enzymes or dilute acids into sucrosesugar that is then fermented into ethanol. The lignin which is also present in the biomass is normally used as a fuel for the ethanol production plants boilers.There are three principle methods of extracting sugars from biomass. These are concentrated acid hydrolysis, dilute acid hydrolysis andenzymatic hydrolysis.
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